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Exxon branded gas station in California
An Exxon-branded gas station in California in March 2005.
Product type: Gasoline
At some locations: Diesel fuel, Car wash,Automobile repair shop
Country: United States
Introduced :January 1, 1973; 43 years ago
Related brands: Esso, Mobil,Petron
Exxon Building (1251 Avenue of Americas), former headquarters of Exxon
Exxon /ˈɛksɒn/ is a chain of gas stations and a brand of motor fuel and related products by ExxonMobil. From 1973 to 1999, Exxon was the corporate name of the company previously known as Humble Oil or Standard Oil of New Jersey. It was one of the Seven Sisters that dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the 1970s.
Exxon replaced the Esso, Enco, and Humble brands in the United States on January 1, 1973. The Esso name was a trademark of Jersey Standard Oil, and attracted protests from other Standard Oil spinoffs because of its phonetic similarity to the acronym of the name of the parent company, Standard Oil. As a result, Jersey Standard was restricted from using Esso in the U.S., except in those states awarded to it in the 1911 Standard Oil antitrust settlement.
In states where it was restricted from using the Esso name, the company marketed under the Humble or Enco brands. The Humble brand was used at Texas stations for decades, as those operations were under the direction of Jersey Standard affiliate Humble Oil & Refining Company. In the middle to late 1950s, use of the Humble brand spread to other southwestern states, including Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma.
Jersey Standard secured full control of Humble Oil and restructured it into its U.S. marketing and refining division, to market nationwide under the Enco, Esso and Humble brands. Enco was created as an abbreviation of the phrase “ENergy COmpany.” Humble introduced the Enco brand in 1960 in Oklahoma and surrounding states, to replace Humble’s subsidiary Oklahoma and Pate brands. Humble also tried marketing under Enco in Ohio, but Standard Oil Company of Ohio (Sohio) protested that the Enco name and logo (a white oval with blue border and red lettering) too closely resembled that of Esso. Consequently, stations in Ohio were rebranded as Humble, and remained so until the Exxon brand came into use.
After the Enco brand was discontinued in Ohio, it was moved to other non-Esso states. In 1961, Humble stations in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas were rebranded to Enco. That same year, Enco appeared on former Carter stations in the Midwest and the Pacific Northwest.
In 1963, Humble Oil and Tidewater Oil Company began negotiating a sale of Tidewater’s West Coast refining and marketing operations. The sale would have given Humble Oil a large number of existing Flying A stations and distributorships, as well as a refinery in California, the nation’s fastest-growing gasoline market. However, the Justice Department objected to the sale on anti-trust grounds. (In 1966, Phillips Petroleum Company bought Tidewater’s western properties and rebranded all Flying A outlets to Phillips 66.)
Humble Oil continued to expand its West Coast operations, adding California to its marketing territory, building a large number of new Enco stations and rebranding others. In 1967, Humble Oil purchased all remaining Signal stations from Standard Oil Company of California (Chevron) and rebranded them as Enco outlets, greatly increasing Enco’s presence in California. Finally, in 1969, Humble Oil opened a new refinery in Benicia, California.
In 1966, the U.S. Justice Department ordered Humble Oil to “cease and desist” from using the Esso brand at stations in several southeastern states, following protests from Standard Oil of Kentucky (Kyso), which was a Standard of California subsidiary in the process of rebranding its Standard stations to Chevron. By 1967, Humble Oil’s Esso stations in the Southeast were rebranded to Enco.
In the 1960s and early 1970s, Humble Oil continued to have difficulties promoting itself as a nationwide marketer of petroleum products, despite a number of high-profile marketing strategies. These included the popular “Put a Tiger in Your Tank” advertising campaign and accompanying tiger mascot, introduced in 1959, to promote Enco Extra and Esso Extra gasolines. Humble Oil also used similar logotypes, use of the Humble name in all Enco and Esso advertising, and uniform designs for all stations regardless of brand. In addition, Humble Oil was a major promoter and broadcast sponsor for college football in the Pacific-8 (now Pac-12) and Southwestern conferences.
But Humble Oil still faced stiff competition from such national brands such as Shell and Texaco, which at that time was the only company to market under one brand name in all 50 states. By the late 1960s, Humble officials realized that the time had come to develop a new brand name that could be used nationwide.
At first, consideration was given to simply rebranding all stations as Enco, but that was shelved when it was learned that the word “Enco” is similar in pronunciation to the Japanese slang term enko, meaning “stalled car” (an abbreviation of enjin no kosho, “engine breakdown”).
In 1972, Exxon was unveiled as the new, unified brand name for all former Enco and Esso outlets. At the same time, the company changed its corporate name from Standard Oil of New Jersey to Exxon Corporation. The rebranding came after successful test-marketing of the Exxon name, under two experimental logos, in the fall and winter of 1971-72. Along with the new name, Exxon settled on a rectangular logo using red lettering and blue trim on a white background, similar to the familiar color scheme on the old Enco and Esso logos.
The company initially planned to change its name to “Exon”, in keeping with the four-letter format of Enco and Esso. However, during the planning process, it was noted that James Exon was the governor of Nebraska. Renaming the company after a sitting governor seemed ill-advised, and the second “x” was added to the new name and logo.
The unrestricted international use of the popular Esso brand prompted Exxon to continue using it outside the U.S. Esso is the only widely used Standard Oil descendant brand left in existence. Others, such as Chevron, maintain a few Standard-branded stations in specific states in order to retain their trademarks and prevent others from using them.
In 1989, Exxon announced that it was moving its headquarters, including about 300 employees, from Manhattan, New York City to the Las Colinas area of Irving, Texas. Exxon sold the Exxon Building (1251 Avenue of the Americas), its former headquarters in Rockefeller Center, to a unit of Mitsui Real Estate Development Co. Ltd. in 1986 for $610 million. John Walsh, president of Exxon subsidiary Friendswood Development Company, stated that Exxon left New York because the costs were too high.
In March 2016, The Rockefeller family fund said that they will divest from fossil fuels, and eliminate holdings from Exxon Mobil Corp.
The rectangular Exxon logo, with the blue strip at the bottom and red lettering with the two ‘X’s interlinked together, was designed by noted industrial stylist Raymond Loewy. The interlinked ‘X’s are incorporated in the modern-day ExxonMobil corporate logo, but the original Exxon logo continues for marketing and station signage. MAD Magazine spoofed the logo by showing a huge sign above the White House: “NIXXON” with the caption: “..but it’s still the same old gas!”
In 1985, Minolta introduced a new autofocus SLR camera system named “Maxxum” in the United States. Originally, cameras (such as the Maxxum 7000) lenses and flashes used a logo with the X’s crossed in ‘MAXXUM’. Exxon considered this a violation of their trademark, and as a result, Minolta was allowed to distribute cameras already produced, but was forced to change the stylistic ‘XX’ and implement this as a change in new production.
Exxon is ExxonMobil’s primary retail gasoline brand in most of the United States, with the highest concentration of retail outlets located in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas and in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern states. The Exxon brand has a significant market presence in the following metropolitan areas:
Map of Exxon stores in the United States
* Atlanta * New York City Metro
* Birmingham * Philadelphia
* Charlotte * Pittsburgh
* Dallas * Richmond
* Houston * Virginia Beach/Norfolk/Newport News
* Nashville * Washington, DC
* New Orleans
Mobil is the company’s primary retail gasoline brand in California, Florida, New York, New England, the Great Lakes and the Midwest. Esso is ExxonMobil’s primary gasoline brand worldwide except in Australia and New Zealand, where the Mobil brand is used exclusively. In Colombia, both the Esso and Mobil brands are used.
China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC),
(simplified Chinese: 中国石油天然气集团公司; traditional Chinese: 中國石油天然氣集團公司; pinyin: Zhōngguó Shíyóu Tiānránqì Jítuán Gōngsī)is a Chinese state-owned oil and gas corporation and the largest integrated energy company in China. Its headquarters are in Dongcheng District, Beijing.
CNPC is the parent of PetroChina, the fourth largest company in the world in terms of revenue as of July 2014.
Known as the parent company of PetroChina, China’s biggest oil producer was hurt by lower oil prices throughout the year. Profits fell by 17%. Like its state-owned rival Sinopec, CNPC was also the focus of an intense anti-corruption campaign. In fact, CNPC has been one of the campaign’s prime targets over the past two years. Zhou Yongkang, former CNPC chairman, was jailed for life this year on graft charges. His case highlighted Beijing’s efforts to break the power clique at CNPC. During the year, CNPC’s strong refining and distribution businesses helped mitigate losses from oil price declines.
Size. As the largest state-owned oil producer, CNPC has a wide range of assets in China and all over the world.
Size. CNPC has been targeted by China’s anti-corruption campaign because of its political influence. That is a liability in today’s China.
China’s demand for oil continues to grow, despite efforts to shift energy demand to alternatives.
Beijing’s anti-corruption campaign could force the company to unwind assets and put key decisions on hold until it passes.
CEO Wang Yilin
Industry Petroleum Refining
HQ Location Beijing, China
Years on List 15
Key Financials (last fiscal year)
($ Millions) % change
Revenues 428620 0%
Profits 16359 -11%
Profits as a % of
Profit as % of Revenues 3%
Profits as % of Assets 2%
Profits as % of Stockholder Equity 5%
* Government owned 50% or more.
* Excise taxes have been deducted. Includes revenues from discontinued operations.
CNPC is the government-owned parent company of publicly listed PetroChina, which was created on November 5, 1999 as part of the restructuring of CNPC. In the restructuring, CNPC injected into PetroChina most of the assets and liabilities of CNPC relating to its hydrocarbon exploration and production, refining and marketing, chemicals and natural gas businesses. CNPC and PetroChina develop overseas assets through a joint venture, CNPC Exploration & Development Company (CNODC), which is 50% owned by PetroChina.
In March 2014, CNPC chairman Zhou Jiping announced that CNPC would be opening six business units to private investors.
Unlike Chinese Petroleum Corporation, which was relocated to Taiwan with the retreat of the Republic of China following the communist revolution, CNPC can be traced from the beginning as a governmental department of the Communist government of China. In 1949, the Chinese government formed a ‘Fuel Industry Ministry’ dedicated to the management of fuel. In January 1952 a division of the fuel ministry was formed to manage petroleum exploration and mining, called the ‘Chief Petroleum Administration Bureau’. In July 1955 a new ministry was created to replace the Fuel Industry Ministry, called the Ministry of Petroleum. From 1955 to 1969, approximately 4 oil fields were found in 4 areas in Qinghai, Heilongjiang (Daqing oilfield), Bohai Bay and Songliao basin. CNPC was created on 17 September 1988, when the government decided to create a state-owned company to handle all Petroleum activities in China and disbanded the Ministry of Petroleum.
CNPC’s international operations began in 1993. The CNPC subsidiary SAPET signed a service contract with the government of Peruto operate Block VII in the Talara Province basin. This was followed[when?] by an oil contract with the government ofSudan to manage Block 1/2/4 in the Muglad oilfield. In August 2005 it was announced that CNPC agreed to buy the Alberta-based PetroKazakhstan for US$4.18 billion, then the largest overseas acquisition by a Chinese company. The acquisition went through on 26 October 2005 after a Canadian court turned down an attempt by LUKoil to block the sale. In 2006 67% of shares were sold from the parent company to PetroChina In June 1997, the company bought a 60.3% stake in the Aktobe Oil Company of Kazakhstan, and in July 1997 CNPC won an oil contract for the Intercampo oilfield and East Caracoles oilfield inVenezuela.
In July 1998, the government restructured the company in accordance with the upstream and downstream principle of the oil industry. and CNPC spun off most of its domestic assets into a separate company, PetroChina. On 5 November 2007, HK listed PetroChina was listed as an A share in the Shanghai Stock Exchange.
In July 2013, CNPC and Eni signed a $4.2 billion deal to acquire a 20% stake in a Mozambique offshore natural gas block.
In June 2014, the “head of a key China National Petroleum subsidiary was recalled to Beijing” and fell “from public view”. Replacement of China National Petroleum’s top representative in Canada was announced in July.
Fuel prices at a petrol station in Dalian
CNPC holds proven reserves of 3.7 billion barrels (590,000,000 m3) of oil equivalent. In 2007, CNPC produced 54 billion cubic metres of natural gas. CNPC has 30 international exploration and production projects with operations in Azerbaijan, Canada, Iran, Indonesia,Myanmar, Oman, Peru, Sudan, Niger, Thailand, Turkmenistan, and Venezuela. The exploration projects, both domestic and overseas, are run by a wholly owned subsidiary, the Great Wall Drilling Company (GWDC).
In March 2009, CNPC began development of Ahdab, an oil field in Wasit Governorate holding a modest one billion barrels, becoming “the first significant foreign investors” in Iraq.The project progressed despite security problems with local farmers. Dozens of farmers complained of damage to property because of work on the site and Iraqi oil officials claimed thievery from the oil site by local farmers.Adhab is not expected to be a major profit center, earning the company a projected 1 percent profit, but the field was seen as an entry strategy into Iraq.
Following Adhab, CNPC obtained a production contract during the 2009/2010 Iraqi oil services contracts tender to develop the much larger “Rumaila field” with joint venture partner BP, which contains an estimated 17.8 billion barrels (2.83×109 m3) of oil. It is expected that crude oil production from Rumaila will expand by 10% by the end of 2010 once the BP PLC/CNPC consortium takes over development of the field in June 2010. A contract was also awarded to a consortium led by CNPC (37.5%), including Total (18.75%) and Petronas (18.75%) for the “Halfaya field” in the south of Iraq, which contains an estimated 4.1 billion barrels (650,000,000 m3) of oil.
CNPC became increasingly involved in development of Iranian oil fields following Western sanctions that targeted the Iranian oil and gas sectors leading many European energy companies such as Shell Oil, Repsol, etc. to shut down operations in Iran. The CNPC along with Sinopec has been involved in various projects relating to Iran oil/gas development. As of 2011, CNPC has been developing Iran’s age-old Masjed Soleyman Oil Field, the oldest oil field of the Middle East, together with Iranian counterpart NIOC in a deal worth 200 million dollars. Production from this particular oil field was expected to increase in 2011 from 2,500 barrels (400 m3) a day to 25,000 barrels (4,000 m3) after the completion of the first phase, and to 55,000,000 bbl/d (8,700,000 m3/d) following the completion of phase 2 of the project.
CNPC with Indian state oil firm, ONGC created a joint venture to acquire minority stakes ranging from about 33.3% to 38% in several mature Syrian oil and natural-gas properties. The combined entity was a notable instance of cooperation between two state oil firms that regularly competed for assets around the world.
CNPC is heavily involved in the development of Kazakh oil after the acquisition of Alberta-based PetroKazakhstan, a company with all operations in Kazakhstan. The company was purchased for $4.18 billion. Political resistance in Kazakhstan to the deal was placated by the sale of a minority stake in PetroKazakhstan by CNPC to KazMunaiGaz, the Kazakh state-owned oil company.
In 2006, CNPC formed an international consortium with state-run Uzbekneftegaz, LUKoil Overseas, Petronas, and Korea National Oil Corporation to explore and develop oil and gas fields in the Aral Sea.
In October 2004, CNPC began construction of a pipeline from the Middle East to Xinjiang.
In December 2011, Afghanistan signed a deal with CNPC for the development of oil blocks in the Amu Darya basin, a project expected to earn billions of dollars over two decades; the deal covers drilling and a refinery in the northern provinces of Sar-e Pol and Faryab and is the first international oil production agreement entered into by the Afghan government for several decades.
CNPC is a major investor in South Sudan’s oil sector. The company is major stockholder in Petrodar consortiums.
In May 2014, A 30-year deal between Russia’s Gazprom and China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) which was 10 years in the making was estimated worth $400 billion. The agreement was signed at a summit in Shanghai and is expected to deliver some 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year, starting around 2018, to China’s burgeoning economy.
CNPC operated in New Zealand as CCDC (NZ) Drilling and had one drilling rig, a triple stand DC rig named Rig 43. CCDC NZ started work over/drilling operations in the Kapuni gas fields of South Taranaki New Zealand in late 2012 for “tight gas”. The rig completed the Kapuni drilling campaign of 4 wells for STOS (Shell Todd Oil Services) in August 2013. Its next drilling project commenced August 2013 for Tag Oil with one well successfully drilled at Cheal C of a depth of just under 5,000m. The rig was then stood down pending appeals for the next stage of a drilling campaign for Tag Oil in March 2014. Due to the periods involved it was decided to end its drilling campaign in New Zealand. Rig 43 was then dismantled and shipped to other overseas locations and no longer operates in New Zealand.(source:fortune500, wikipedia.org)
Royal Dutch Shell
Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands
Type:Public limited company
Traded as: LSE: RDSA, RDSB
Euronext: RDSA, RDSB
NYSE: RDS.A, RDS.B
Industry: Oil and gas
Predecessor: Royal Dutch Petroleum (1890)
“Shell” Transport and Trading (1897)
Founded: February 1907; 109 years ago
Headquarters: The Hague, Netherlands
Shell Centre,London, United Kingdom (Registered office)
Key people: Ben van Beurden (CEO),Charles Holliday (Chairman)
Products: Petroleum, natural gas, and other petrochemicals
Revenue :Decrease US$264.96 billion (2015)
Operating income:Decrease US$-3.261 billion (2015)
Profit: Decrease US$1.939 billion (2015)
Total assets: Decrease US$340.15 billion (2015)
Total equity: Decrease US$162.87 billion (2015)
Number of employees: 94,000 (2015)
- Shell Australia
- Shell South Africa
- Shell Canada
- Shell Chemicals
- Shell Gas & Power
- Shell Nigeria
- Shell Pakistan
- Shell Oil Company
Royal Dutch Shell plc (LSE: RDSA, RDSB), commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo-Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom. Created by the merger of Royal Dutch Petroleum and UK-based Shell Transport & Trading, it is the seventh largest company in the world as of 2016, in terms of revenue, and one of the six oil and gas “supermajors”.
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China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation
Headquarters in Beijing, China
Native name :中国石油化工股份有限公司
Type: Public ltd.
Traded as SSE: 600028
Industry: Oil and gas
Founded :Beijing, China (2000; 16 years ago)
Headquarters : Chaoyang District, Beijing, China
Key people : Fu Chengyu (Chairman), Vacant (President)
Jiao Fangzheng (Vice President E&P)
Products :Fuels, lubricants, petrochemicals
Revenue:Decrease CN¥2.825 trillion (2014),US$455.499 billion (2014)
Operating income: Decrease CN¥73.487 billion (2014)
Net income: Decrease CN¥46.466 billion (2014)
Total assets :Increase CN¥1.451 trillion (2014)
Total equity :Increase CN¥593 billion (2014)
Number of employees:358,571 (2015)
Parent : China Petrochemical Corporation (Chinese government)
This article is about the retail chain.
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Headquarters in Bentonville
-Traded as NYSE: WMT
-Dow Jones Industrial Average Component
-S&P 500 Component Industry Retail
-Founded: July 2, 1962; 53 years ago
-Rogers, Arkansas, U.S.
-Founder Sam Walton
-Headquarters: Bentonville, Arkansas, United States
-Number of locations: 11,527 (February 29, 2016)
-Area served: Worldwide
-Key people :Greg Penner (Chairman) Doug McMillon (President & CEO)
-Products: Electronics, movies and music, home and furniture, home improvement, clothing, footwear, jewelry, toys, health and beauty, pet supplies, sporting goods and fitness, auto, photo finishing, craft supplies, party supplies, grocery.
-Revenue Decrease: US$482.13 billion (2015)
-Operating income :Decrease US$24.10 billion (2015)
-Net income: Decrease US$14.69 billion (2015)
-Total assets: Decrease US$199.58 billion (2015)
-Total equity: Decrease US$80.54 billion (2015)
-Owner: Walton family (52%)
-Number of employees: 2.2million in the World (2015)
1.4million in U.S. (2015]